Corresponding author: Assistant Professor Dr. Copyright © The Authors This is an open access article under the terms of the Rheumatoid arthritis stages Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs Licensewhich permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.
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This article has been cited by other articles rheumatoid arthritis stages PMC. Abstract Background It is supposed that hypoandrogenism may be involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis RA. Methods This case-control study was conducted on 59 patients with RA and 61 healthy gender- and age-matched controls at Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran, in Serum free testosterone and DHEAs levels were measured and compared between two groups.
Serum testosterone levels lower than 0. DHEAs levels lower than Data were analyzed using rheumatoid arthritis stages sample T-test, Chi-square test, and logistic regression analysis by SPSS software, version Results The mean testosterone level in females of the control group was significantly higher than females in the case group. The mean DHEAs in the control group was significantly higher than the case group. Abnormal testosterone and DHEAs level in the case group was significantly higher than the control group.
Conclusion With regard to the results, abnormal testosterone and DHEAs level in patients with RA was significantly higher than the control group.
This shows the anti-inflammatory effects of gonadal and adrenal androgens in RA. Keywords: Rheumatoid arthritis, Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, Androgens, Humoral immunity, Cellular immunity Go to: 1. Introduction Rheumatoid Arthritis RA is a chronic, systemic autoimmune disease characterized by inflammatory arthritis.
The disease is characterized by a symmetric synovitis and tenderness of different joints, especially small joints of hands and feet. This disease is the most common form of inflammatory acute arthritis which usually causes joint damages and disability 1.
The prevalence of RA is about 0. The disease is most prevalent in females and in the age range of 25—55 years 2 — 4.
Clinical trials Pathological diagnosis of invasive adenocarcinoma of the breast. Breast cancer completely excised. Primary tumor stage T Must not be more than 2 months ± 7 days and no sooner than 1 month from completion of last adjuvant chemo- or radiotherapy, at the time of first study treatment.
The RA symptoms at the time of referring to the clinics typically result from inflammation in joints, tendons and bursas 5. In a joint study by the American College of Rheumatology and the European Rheumatoid arthritis stages Against Rheumatism, the classification criteria of RA were revised 6aiming to improve the process of early diagnosis of the disease in patients who can benefit from treatment with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs DMARD 7.
Diag - Rheumatoid arthritis korai stádium Rheumatoid arthritis early stages.
Hypoandrogenism is a disorder associated with RA. The level of testosterone reduces at the onset of disease complications and returns to the normal state after relieving the acute symptoms The severity of gonadotropin suppression is in association with the severity of disease. Most of these people have a central defect in the hypothalamus-pituitary, or have defects in the testicles and in the hypothalamic-pituitary centers Sexual hormones engage in immune responses; for example, estrogen hormones intensify humoral immune responses, and progesterone and androgens naturally act as immune inhibitors 1415 ; for example, the levels of testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate DHEAs - one of the major circulating steroids in blood and as az ízületi gyulladás okainak kezelése central intermediate in the metabolic pathway of sex steroid hormone formation 16 - decrease in body fluids such as blood, synovial liquid 17 and saliva of males and females with RA These hormones also strengthen the pathogenic potential role of the lower levels of androgens, which are the immune system inhibitors.
The anti-inflammatory effects of androgens in physiological levels are proved The mean testosterone and DHEAs serum levels in males and postmenopausal females with RA were lower than those of the control group; hence, it is supposed that hypoandrogenism may be involved in the pathogenesis of RA In fact, some studies indicated that higher levels of testosterone in young males rheumatoid arthritis rheumatoid arthritis stages protective roles against the incidence of RA The idea that lower bizsergő térdízület of serum rheumatoid arthritis stages associated with RA conditions result from chronic inflammatory situations relies on the observations indicating the clinical improvement associated with the level of serum testosterone after a successful treatment It is clinically important that patients rheumatoid arthritis stages long-term treatment with glucocorticoids may experience hypoandrogenism due to the secretion of Luteinizing hormone LH and Follicle-stimulating hormone FSH by their hypophyses If there is a relationship between the reduction of androgens and RA disease, further studies could be planned on the available therapeutic methods and testosterone.
The aim of this study was to determine the association of serum testosterone and DHEAs with rheumatoid arthritis in a case control design. Go to: 2. The project was approved in the local medical researches ethics committee of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. The case group included the patients with RA referred to the rheumatology clinic at Qazvin University of Medical Sciences with medical records. The demographics, time of onset of illness symptoms, morning stiffness, extra-articular manifestations, type of joint involvement, time of menopause, and results of laboratory medical tests RF, Anti-CCP were recorded in the medical profile of the patients.
The inclusion criterion was diagnosis of RA in men and postmenopausal women. The exclusion criteria were thyroid disorders, polycystic ovarian syndrome in women, adrenal tumors, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hypopituitarism, rheumatoid arthritis stages disease, alcohol use, and taking medications including androgens, steroids, anticonvulsants, barbiturates, and clomiphene, adrenocortical tumors.
The control group subjects were selected among the healthy people referred to the rheumatology clinic, and were matched for age and gender with the case group. The goals of the project were provided to the subjects in both groups and written informed consent was obtained from them, respectively.
A 5 mL non-fasting blood sample rheumatoid arthritis stages 8—10 am was obtained from each subject in both groups. Based on the reference range of Roche kit, the serum testosterone level lower than 0. Data were explained by central and diffusion indices. The association between the qualitative variables was measured using independent sample T-test and the association between the qualitative variables was evaluated using Chi-square test.
The independent association between the variables and RA was evaluated by logistic regression analysis. All analyses were performed using the SPSS software, version Go to: 3.
Results Fifty-nine patients with RA and 61 healthy subjects were enrolled into the study.